NACE classificatory

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Manufacture of food products
This division includes the processing of the products of agriculture, forestry and fishing into food for humans or animals, and includes the production of various intermediate products that are not directly food products. The activity often generates associated products of greater or lesser value (for example, hides from slaughtering, or oilcake from oil production).

This division is organised by activities dealing with different kinds of products: meat, fish, fruit and vegetables, fats and oils, milk products, grain mill products, animal feeds and other food products. Production can be carried out for own account, as well as for third parties, as in custom slaughtering.

Some activities are considered manufacturing (for example, those performed in bakeries, pastry shops, and prepared meat shops etc. which sell their own production) even though there is retail sale of the products in the producers' own shop. However, where the processing is minimal and does not lead to a real transformation, the unit is classified to wholesale and retail trade (section G).

Preparation of food for immediate consumption on the premises is classified to division 56 (Food and beverage service activities).

Production of animal feeds from slaughter waste or by-products is classified in 10.9, while processing food and beverage waste into secondary raw material is classified to 38.3, and disposal of food and beverage waste in 38.21.

This division does not include the preparation of meals for immediate consumption, such as in restaurants.
Manufacture of beverages
This division includes the manufacture of beverages, such as non-alcoholic beverages and mineral water, manufacture of alcoholic beverages mainly through fermentation, beer and wine, and the manufacture of distilled alcoholic beverages.

This division excludes:
- production of fruit and vegetable juices, see 10.32
- manufacture of milk-based drinks, see 10.51
- manufacture of coffee, tea and mate products, see 10.83
Manufacture of tobacco products
This division includes the processing of an agricultural product, tobacco, into a form suitable for final consumption.

Manufacture of textiles
This division includes preparation and spinning of textile fibres as well as textile weaving, finishing of textiles and wearing apparel, manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel (e.g. household linen, blankets, rugs, cordage etc.). Growing of natural fibres is covered under division 01, while manufacture of synthetic fibres is a chemical process classified in class 20.60. Manufacture of wearing apparel is covered in division 14.

Manufacture of wearing apparel
This division includes all tailoring (ready-to-wear or made-to-measure), in all materials (e.g. leather, fabric, knitted and crocheted fabrics etc.), of all items of clothing (e.g. outerwear, underwear for men, women or children, work, city or casual clothing etc.) and accessories. There is no distinction made between clothing for adults and clothing for children, or between modern and traditional clothing.
Division 14 also includes the fur industry (fur skins and wearing apparel).
Manufacture of leather and related products
This division includes dressing and dyeing of fur and the transformation of hides into leather by tanning or curing and fabricating the leather into products for final consumption.
It also includes the manufacture of similar products from other materials (imitation leathers or leather substitutes), such as rubber footwear, textile luggage etc. The products made from leather substitutes are included here, since they are made in ways similar to those in which leather products are made (e.g. luggage) and are often produced in the same unit.
Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
This division includes the manufacture of wood products, such as lumber, plywood, veneers, wood containers, wood flooring, wood trusses, and prefabricated wood buildings. The production processes include sawing, planing, shaping, laminating, and assembling of wood products starting from logs that are cut into bolts, or lumber that may then be cut further, or shaped by lathes or other shaping tools. The lumber or other transformed wood shapes may also be subsequently planed or smoothed, and assembled into finished products, such as wood containers.

With the exception of sawmilling, this division is subdivided mainly based on the specific products manufactured.

This division does not include the manufacture of furniture (31.0), or the installation of wooden fittings and the like (43.32, 43.33, 43.39).
Manufacture of paper and paper products
This division includes the manufacture of pulp, paper and converted paper products. The manufacture of these products is grouped together because they constitute a series of vertically connected processes. More than one activity is often carried out in a single unit.

There are essentially three activities: The manufacture of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibres from other matter in wood, or dissolving and de-inking of used paper, and mixing in small amounts of reagents to reinforce the binding of the fibres. The manufacture of paper involves releasing pulp onto a moving wire mesh so as to form a continuous sheet. Converted paper products are made from paper and other materials by various techniques.

The paper articles may be printed (e.g. wallpaper, gift wrap etc.), as long as the printing of information is not the main purpose.

The production of pulp, paper and paperboard in bulk is included in group 17.1, while the remaining classes include the production of further-processed paper and paper products.

Printing and reproduction of recorded media
This division includes printing of products, such as newspapers, books, periodicals, business forms, greeting cards, and other materials, and associated support activities, such as bookbinding, plate-making services, and data imaging. The support activities included here are an integral part of the printing industry, and a product (a printing plate, a bound book, or a computer disk or file) that is an integral part of the printing industry is almost always provided by these operations.

Processes used in printing include a variety of methods for transferring an image from a plate, screen or computer file to a medium, such as paper, plastics, metal, textile articles, or wood. The most prominent of these methods entails the transfer of the image from a plate or screen to the medium through lithographic, gravure, screen or flexographic printing. Often a computer file is used to directly ''drive'' the printing mechanism to create the image or electrostatic and other types of equipment (digital or non-impact printing).

Though printing and publishing can be carried out by the same unit (a newspaper, for example), it is less and less the case that these distinct activities are carried out in the same physical location.
This division also includes the reproduction of recorded media, such as compact discs, video recordings, software on discs or tapes, records etc.
This division excludes publishing activities (see section J).
Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products
This division includes the transformation of crude petroleum and coal into usable products. The dominant process is petroleum refining, which involves the separation of crude petroleum into component products through such techniques as cracking and distillation.

This division includes the manufacture of gases such as ethane, propane and butane as products of petroleum refineries.
This division also includes the manufacture for own account of characteristic products (e.g. coke, butane, propane, petrol, kerosene, fuel oil etc.) as well as processing services (e.g. custom refining).
Not included is the manufacture of such gases in other units (20.14), manufacture of industrial gases (20.11), extraction of natural gas (methane, ethane, butane or propane) (06.20), and manufacture of fuel gas, other than petroleum gases (e.g. coal gas, water gas, producer gas, gasworks gas) (35.21).

The manufacture of petrochemicals from refined petroleum is classified in division 20.
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
This division includes the transformation of organic and inorganic raw materials by a chemical process and the formation of products. It distinguishes the production of basic chemicals that constitute the first industry group from the production of intermediate and end products produced by further processing of basic chemicals that make up the remaining industry classes.

Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
This division includes the manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations.
This also includes the manufacture of medicinal chemical and botanical products.
Manufacture of rubber and plastic products
This division includes the manufacture of rubber and plastics products.

This division is characterised by the raw materials used in the manufacturing process. However, this does not imply that the manufacture of all products made of these materials is classified here.

Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products
This division includes manufacturing activities related to a single substance of mineral origin. This division includes the manufacture of glass and glass products (e.g. flat glass, hollow glass, fibres, technical glassware etc.), ceramic products, tiles and baked clay products, and cement and plaster, from raw materials to finished articles.
The manufacture of shaped and finished stone and other mineral products is also included in this division.
Manufacture of basic metals
This division includes the activities of smelting and/or refining ferrous and non-ferrous metals from ore, pig or scrap, using electrometallurgic and other process metallurgic techniques.
This division also includes the manufacture of metal alloys and super-alloys by introducing other chemical elements to pure metals. The output of smelting and refining, usually in ingot form, is used in rolling, drawing and extruding operations to make products such as plate, sheet, strip, bars, rods, wire or tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, and in molten form to make castings and other basic metal products.
Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
This division includes the manufacture of 'pure' metal products (such as parts, containers and structures), usually with a static, immovable function, as opposed to the following divisions 26-30, which cover the manufacture of combinations or assemblies of such metal products (sometimes with other materials) into more complex units that, unless they are purely electrical, electronic or optical, work with moving parts.
The manufacture of weapons and ammunition is also included in this division.
This division excludes:
- specialised repair and maintenance activities, see 33.1
- specialised installation of manufactured goods produced in this division in buildings, such as central heating boilers, see 43.22
Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products
This division includes the manufacture of computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, as well as the manufacture of components for such products. Production processes of this division are characterised by the design and use of integrated circuits and the application of highly specialised miniaturisation technologies.
The division also contains the manufacture of consumer electronics, measuring, testing and navigating equipment, irradiation, electromedical and electrotherapeutic equipment, optical instruments and equipment, and the manufacture of magnetic and optical media.
Manufacture of electrical equipment
This division includes the manufacture of products that generate, distribute and use electrical power.
Also included is the manufacture of electrical lighting, signalling equipment and electric household appliances.
This division excludes the manufacture of electronic products (see division 26).
Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
This division includes the manufacture of machinery and equipment that act independently on materials either mechanically or thermally or perform operations on materials (such as handling, spraying, weighing or packing), including their mechanical components that produce and apply force, and any specially manufactured primary parts. This includes the manufacture of fixed and mobile or hand-held devices, regardless of whether they are designed for industrial, building and civil engineering, agricultural or home use. The manufacture of special equipment for passenger or freight transport within demarcated premises also belongs within this division.

This division distinguishes between the manufacture of special-purpose machinery, i.e. machinery for exclusive use in a NACE industry or a small cluster of NACE industries, and general-purpose machinery, i.e. machinery that is being used in a wide range of NACE industries.
This division also includes the manufacture of other special-purpose machinery, not covered elsewhere in the classification, whether or not used in a manufacturing process, such as fairground amusement equipment, automatic bowling alley equipment, etc.
This division excludes the manufacture of metal products for general use (division 25), associated control devices, computer equipment, measurement and testing equipment, electricity distribution and control apparatus (divisions 26 and 27) and general-purpose motor vehicles (divisions 29 and 30).
Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
This division includes the manufacture of motor vehicles for transporting passengers or freight. The manufacture of various parts and accessories, as well as the manufacture of trailers and semi-trailers, is included here.

The maintenance and repair of vehicles produced in this division are classified in 45.20.

Manufacture of other transport equipment
This division includes the manufacture of transportation equipment such as ship building and boat manufacturing, the manufacture of railroad rolling stock and locomotives, air and spacecraft and the manufacture of parts thereof.

Manufacture of furniture
This division includes the manufacture of furniture and related products of any material except stone, concrete and ceramic. The processes used in the manufacture of furniture are standard methods of forming materials and assembling components, including cutting, moulding and laminating. The design of the article, for both aesthetic and functional qualities, is an important aspect of the production process.

Some of the processes used in furniture manufacturing are similar to processes that are used in other segments of manufacturing. For example, cutting and assembly occurs in the production of wood trusses that are classified in division 16 (Manufacture of wood and wood products). However, the multiple processes distinguish wood furniture manufacturing from wood product manufacturing. Similarly, metal furniture manufacturing uses techniques that are also employed in the manufacture of roll-formed products classified in division 25 (Manufacture of fabricated metal products). The moulding process for plastics furniture is similar to the moulding of other plastics products. However, the manufacture of plastics furniture tends to be a specialised activity.

Other manufacturing
This division includes the manufacture of a variety of goods not covered in other parts of the classification. Since this is a residual division, production processes, input materials and use of the produced goods can vary widely and usual criteria for grouping classes into divisions have not been applied here.

Repair and installation of machinery and equipment
This division includes the specialised repair of goods produced in the manufacturing sector with the aim to restore machinery, equipment and other products to working order. The provision of general or routine maintenance (i.e. servicing) on such products to ensure they work efficiently and to prevent breakdown and unnecessary repairs is included.

This division does only include specialised repair and maintenance activities. A substantial amount of repair is also done by manufacturers of machinery, equipment and other goods, in which case the classification of units engaged in these repair and manufacturing activities is done according to the value-added principle which would often assign these combined activities to the manufacture of the good. The same principle is applied for combined trade and repair.

The rebuilding or remanufacture of machinery and equipment is considered a manufacturing activity and included in other divisions of this section.

Repair and maintenance of goods that are utilised as capital goods as well as consumer goods is typically classified as repair and maintenance of household goods (e.g. office and household furniture repair, see 95.24).
Also included in this division is the specialised installation of machinery. However, the installation of equipment that forms an integral part of buildings or similar structures, such as installation of electrical wiring, installation of escalators or installation of air-conditioning systems, is classified as construction.
This division excludes:
- cleaning of industrial machinery, see 81.22
- repair and maintenance of computers and communications equipment, see 95.1
- repair and maintenance of household goods, see 95.2

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